Lumpy Bumpy Humpty Dumpty

earth

When I think of Earth, I think of a perfect, brilliant, blue sphere with whorls of white clouds and green/brown land masses.  After all, I am not completely ignorant of my global geography and my immediate astronomy.  I know what my planet looks like.  I’ve seen photos and images of our home planet ever since I was old enough to pick up a book.  Stunning full-color photo splashes on huge coffee table picture books show what the view from above the world looks like—bright and shining, beautiful to behold, and full of nostalgia.  Surely a wondrous place I would be proud to call my home.

Why would I not trust those astronauts who went out into space to show me what my Earth looks like from above?  Why would I not trust with my own eyes, photographs that were taken from satellites circling around us twenty-four hours a day, nonstop?

earth2

Well, phooey on me.

I certainly din’t expect it to look like this.

potatoheadEarth

Back in 2011, the European Space Agency’s Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) released an image of the Earth that was created using what is called a geoid, which is a representation of the planet created by measuring how gravity affects the shape of Earth.

The surface of the geoid is farther away from the center of the Earth where the gravity is weaker, and nearer where it is stronger. The differences in gravity, and hence the scalar potential field, arise from the uneven distribution of the density of matter in the earth.  ~  Wikipedia [1]

Since the areas that are raised and bumpy do not show the true shape of the continents, it was not immediately recognizable to me what part of Earth I was looking at.  To minimize confusion, I labeled Viet Nam, China, and Australia to orient myself to the new geography of the geoid map.  What the colors show amazed me.  There is a deep indigo hole off the coast of India and a huge bulge on one end of the Antarctic.  The Pacific Rim is one huge bulge which shows that the most dense areas lie off the coastlines and towards the center of the Pacific, with a notable exception of Australia, where the entire continent is part of the denseness.

As indicated by the map, where gravity is lower than expected in certain areas, blue patches are shown.  Where gravity is higher than expected,  red and yellow areas.  Gravity affects the Earth by shifting sea levels, and that’s how the lumps and bumps manifest themselves.  I have always thought that sea level would be zero where the ocean meets the land.  Apparently, I am an oxymoron because I am not factoring in the displacement of water due to fluctuating gravitational strength, depending on where I am standing on Earth, not to mention the wind action and effects of the tides (from the moon’s influence).

Why would this matter to us?  Well, I for one, would like to own one of those handy-dandy self-driving cars in the near future, and the only way that a car can drive itself is if it knows where it is on the geographic map.  In comes our handy dandy GPS (Global Positioning System) to pinpoint with as accurately as possible, our location on Earth (and here is where the hilarity comes in of directing someone into a lake or out into the ocean).  Without factoring in the various gravitational fluctuations, GPS is off by a magnitude of many many degrees.  Once the brainy folks figured that out, GPS became much more reliable and navigation became far less adventurous.

While this is quite interesting, you should know me by now.  This kind of information, while obviously very important to car drivers, doesn’t make me sit up and go Whooooaaaa!!!  It would not be of such interest to me unless there was something else my brain was incessantly picking and worrying at, like some rat with a tangled ball of twine.  What’s the big deal that the Earth is a lumpy, bumpy, Humpty Dumpty?

My answer is ‘anti-gravity’.

Girlred

According to NASA’s website on geoid Earth:

Gravity anomalies are often due to unusual concentrations of mass in a region. For example, the presence of mountain ranges will usually cause the gravitational force to be more than it would be on a featureless planet — positive gravity anomaly. Conversely, the presence of ocean trenches or even the depression of the landmass that was caused by the presence of glaciers millennia ago can cause negative gravity anomalies. ~ NASA [2]

My brain is trying to accommodate the idea that the surface of the deepest ocean in the world (Pacific Ocean) is also the most dense and has the most gravitational affectations.  I would expect mountains to have a higher gravitational pull than the bottom of the deepest ocean on Earth, but the Earth is telling me that this is not so.  What it is telling me is that something under the Pacific Ocean is causing more intense gravitational force than level land; conversely, something under the Indian Ocean is causing less gravity (even negative gravity anomalies) than level land.  Why?

So I shut my noisy blathering brain down and I listen carefully to what the Earth’s geological structures are trying to tell me, and she’s saying that there are HUGE mountains under the Pacific Ocean as well as a huge trench right under the Indian Ocean, where there is a dark indigo spot located.  It looks as if something is cancelling out gravity at that point—perhaps a leakage of some type of anti-matter bubbling upward through the ocean floor.  Its source must originate from some internal planetary singular (tiny black hole?).

I am not sure.  Research on anti-matter and whether or not it has anti-gravity properties is still in its infancy, but I am following the research with much interest.  Imagine the possibilities if we can definitively tie the two together!

1.  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geoid

2.  http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/GRACE/page3.php

Advertisements

The Signature of a Rock Star

chuykaayo

(…continued from Solid State of Sound)

Gravity is really a frequency, part of Einstein’s Unified Field.  Crystallized blocks of basalt need only be resonating at the frequency of gravity, 1012 hertz, or the frequency between short radio waves and infrared radiation, and they will lose their weight.  Crystals, even basalt crystals, are ideal for resonating in such a ay.  If that was the way that the stones “magically” flew through the air, then they might have spun upward and to the east, just as the legend says ,because of the spin of the Earth.  The centrifugal force of the Earth’s spin caused the stones to rise.  Then it might be possible for people to ride on the logs of basalt, and then help lower them into the place at Nan Madol as the vibration lessened, an the stones gained weight again.  ~  Dr. Randall Pfingston

Normally, I try to touch upon subjects that are beyond the mundane.  Daily life is mundane enough.  Why would anyone want to read about what I had for breakfast this morning, or whether my cocker spaniel looks cute in a dress (SHE DOES!!!!).  The subjects I choose usually conjure themselves out from between my ears, as I am reading random bits of knowledge which happen to link up in odd ways.

It seems to occur most often when I am working on my writing because that is when I do most of my research (and it is a labor of love since these postings and pages don’t write themselves).   Sometimes, the research is straightforward, meaning what you see is what you get.  But sometimes, it is an offshoot of something that is important, but it—in and of itself—may not seem to be a critical component of the entirety.  What has turned out to be more true than not is the fact that anything that is considered important will usually not be made up of inconsequential components.  An important object or subject will usually always be composed of entities which are, in and of themselves, relatively important in some way, shape or form.

Such is the importance of rocks.

rocksYes, I did say rocks.

Rocks are important because they are the base upon which everything resides.  We often overlook them because, let’s face it, they’re not all that terribly exciting (unless they’re mounted on jewelry, and then they’re AWESOME!).  But in this instant, I’m not interested in the gem kinds of rocks.  I’m interested in the ones that are used for building structures that will last for thousands and thousands of years.  Those types of megalithic structures require certain kinds of rocks—ones that have staying power, ones that will last through the ages past the vagaries of time and tide, and past the ravages of war and unnatural destructive forces.  Those kinds of rock have to be hard.  Rock hard.  Metal hard, even.  

Interestingly enough, the ancient Vietnamese word for rocks means metal.  To my ancient ancestors, metal and rocks are so similar that they can be interchangeably called kim.  That is because there are certain properties that they share.  They are both born from the same environment, they are quarried together, and they have many of the same properties.  Magnetism is one of those properties that does not reside only with metals but also rocks.  

Amongst the Earth’s most common rocks, basalt and granite are rockstars.  They are most often used to create megalithic monuments such as Nan Madol in the Pacific Ocean and the pyramids of Egypt and Central America, but their abundance is not the reason why they are most often used.  After all, there are other types of rocks (of the sedimentary kind) that are far easier to be worked, and much lighter in weight.  There is a very compelling reason why anyone would want to quarry such hard and heavy rocks out of mountains and cliff sides and then transporting them, sometimes for miles and miles, to their final destination, and that is resonancy.

Of course, as with all things complex, there are shades of the same grey.  In this case, the exact same lava flow cools in two ways, and they are opposites of each other.  Basalts cool on the surface so they are dark, fine-grained, thin, and heavy.  Granite, on the other hand, cools slowly, deep within the rock so it is lighter-hued, coarse-grained, and lightweight*).  *When I say lightweight, I don’t mean feather light.  I mean it is light enough to float on top of the basalt, which is far more dense.  Let’s start with basalt.

Basaltic Andesite

Basalt rocks are found mostly in the ocean and make up the oceanic bedrock.  It is different than the rock which makes up continental shelves even though, like the continental shelf rocks, it is also born from lava flow.  Like the flow of blood gushing from a wound in the Earth after a particularly violent volcanic eruption, lava discharges and then cools, turning into igneous rocks.

animeguy2Among the varied and abundant basalts of the world, andesite is a rock star.  It is extrusive, meaning that it is born when hot lava flow hits water, cooling its surface rapidly.  This causes andesite to become extremely hard, dense, and very dark in color because none of the minerals  have not had a chance to accumulate.

It is  one of the hardest basalts and is evenly infused with quartz.  With so much quartz inherent in its makeup, andesite is also capable of creating a piezoelectric effect when it is under pressure.

Granitic Diorite

anime guy 1

Granite is the intrusive version of basalt.  It cools slowly, deep within the bedrock and slowly becomes part of the continental shelf.  This slow, steady cooling allows for various minerals and crystals to be able to form.

As time goes by, all the darker, heavier metals and minerals sink down, allowing the lighter-colored minerals and crystals to coalesce, causing a highly textured and colorful rock.

Andesite’s twin brother is diorite.  Rising up from the heavy layer of its brother’s weight, diorite is bright and colorful, sporting a profusion of embedded minerals and crystals.  It is not has hard and nowhere nearly as heavy as andesite, but that is not to say that it is not a hard stone.  These two rockstars are used exclusively to create the capstone on the pyramids because of their magnetic powers as well as their resonance abilities.

In the case of Nan Madol, it is entirely made of basaltic andesite, and there is a very important reason why the ancient builders insisted on using this most dense material to create the megalithic structure of Nan Madol.  The reason has to do with location.

(…continue to Goddess of Frequency)

A 48,000-year-old Bracelet

cave

In the 1970s, Soviet scientists discovered paleoarcheological remains in the cave that led to further explorations.[1] So far, 22 strata have been identified, with archeological artifacts that cover the time from Dionisij back to about 125,000-180,000 years ago.[2] The dating of the strata was accomplished by the use of thermoluminescence dating of sediments, or, in some cases, radiocarbon dating on charcoal.[2] Among the archeological artifacts are Mousterian– and Levallois-style tools attributed to Neanderthals.[5] Beside tools, researchers found decorative objects of bone, mammoth tusk, animal teeth, ostrich egg shell, fragments of a stone bracelet made of drilled, worked and polished dark green chloritolite, and pendants.[2] The average annual temperature of the cave remains at 0°C (32°F), which has contributed to the preservation of archaic DNA among the remains discovered.  ~ Wikipedia

I love all things mystical and mysterious.  The idea of ancient remains of humans that offer clues about our shared ancestry fills me with wonder and delight.  So naturally, I would want to find out all about it.  I searched through computer archives for scholarly papers on the Denisovans, I read up on Mousterian and Levallois tools, and I did a quick Google search for chloritolite.

Hmmmmm.  Something not working here.  Search engines are busted.  There is no such mineral or metamorphic rock as chloritolite.  What were supposedly scholarly articles, and a heavily annotated wikipedia, had just named a rock that did not exist anywhere in the scientific categorical listing of gemology …you’d think they would have the name correct on something as simple as a rock, but nooOOooo.  Absolutely nothing.

Methinks I need to find a geologist friend and ask about this.  Anyone out there who is a geologist and can help me with this puzzling detail?

anime girl questionmark

Maybe I spelled it wrong.  

So I tried spelling it a couple of different ways.  chloristolite, chlaritolite, chloritalite…nothing comes up.  Of course, Google being Google, is far smarter than me.  It asks with that smug, know-it-all, holier-than-thou attitude (which I love by the way):   Did you mean:  Chlorastrolite.

I thought—sure.  Why not.  Nothing was coming up on any search I did for chloritolite anyhoo.  So I followed the link and this is what Wikipedia says:

Chlorastrolite occurs as amygdaloid structures and fracture fillings in basalt, and when the water and wave action has worn away the basalt, they are found as beach pebbles and granules in loose sediments. It is found in the Keweenaw Peninsula of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan and Isle Royale in Lake Superior. Isle Royale is a National Park, and so it is illegal to collect specimens there. It is difficult to identify an unpolished pebble of chlorastrolite. Most gem quality chlorastrolite stones are very small, and it is rare to find one that is larger than a half inch. The largest gem quality stone is in the Smithsonian and measures 1.5 by 3 inches. ~ Wikipedia

chlorastrolite

So I go to other websites and continue my armchair research.

Isle Royale Greenstones (Chlorastrolite) are so striking with their stunning chatoyancy and handsome alligator-like pattern. People think of diamonds as rare, when, in fact, they are artificially scarce due to lack of free market sales and cartel controls.  Michigan Greenstones on the other hand are a one-source gemstone.  Chlorastrolite can be translated from its Greek roots as “Green Star Stone”.  Chlorastrolite is one of the rarest gemstones on earth. Nowhere else in the world are Greenstones found other than in Michigan’s Keweenaw Peninsula and on Isle Royale National Park, where they are illegal to harvest. ~ Snob Appeal Jewelry

And here is where I got stuck.  If the rock can only be found around the shoreline of Michigan’s great lakes, how the hell did it get inside a cave located  in the Bashelaksky Range of the Altai mountains, Siberia, Russia?  Really, you’d think the archaeologists/paleontologists would get the name of the rock correct…or at least find a bracelet with some local, easy to find stones.  Instead, they had to find a bracelet made up of one of the rarest stones in the world, one which only has a single source, and that source would happen to be on the other side of the planet.

I wonder what they’ll come up with next…that Denisovans are a mysterious race that had been imbued with an as-yet-unknown genetic infusion from another mysterious race that we have no clues about?

Oh…wait a minute…

A comparison with the genome of a Neanderthal from the same cave revealed significant local inbreeding, with local Neanderthal DNA representing 17% of the Denisovan genome, while evidence was also detected of interbreeding with an as yet unidentified ancient human lineage.  ~  Wikipedia

…and the plot thickens…

Sunken Paradise

anime girl 191

Much of the ancient world inherited by our ancestors now lies under water after melting ice caps flooded vast areas at the end of the last Ice Age. New advances in geology and marine technology mean that the great archaeological finds of this coming century will more than likely be found under the oceans. It now looks likely that large populations of early humans were obliterated from the historical record by this catastrophe over 10,000 years ago.  ~  Graham Hancock

(…continue from Ancient Viet: Cradle of Asian Civilization)

Sundaland

In order to understand ancient Vietnam and how it fits in with world history, I have to take a look back farther in time than I have been.  In fact, I have to go back to the time when we were all starting to move out of Africa.  Unfortunately, this means I have to talk about an area of the world that is no longer even on the map and for the longest time, was thought to be mythical.

I am standing here, looking at the shadowy depths of an area called Sundaland which, sixty-thousand years ago, was once a rich, fertile area, densely populated by a people with a high level of civilization.

sundalandMap taken from petetherockman.com

OK, so I know some folks may think I am talking about a mythical place similar to an often-talked-about-but-never-found Atlantis, but there is real geological evidence that it does indeed exists.

Geological Evidence for Sundaland

According to geologist Peter Cattermole, Sundaland [1] was HUGE.  It was the largest area on Earth that underwent a submersion following three waves of global flooding following glacier ice melts at the end of the last ice age.  This means that, soon after our ancestors migrated out of Africa (and archaeogenetics show that it was in one big wave of migration, not two smaller waves), one of the first places we went to was Sundaland.  The weather was nice, the food was plentiful, we proliferated and grew in numbers.  We lived and worked and played in that area for at least 50,000 years—plenty enough time for a fairly advanced level of civilization to occur.  [2]

It was Eden…until global warming occurred (sound familiar?), at which time, we got flooded.

It didn’t happen all at once.  When the first signs of flooding appeared, around 20,000 years ago, my ancestors were slowly being forced to migrate westward.  Eventually, the southeast Asian subcontinent was hit HARD by three great sea level surges which sank the continent in huge swaths of land.  The first surge occurred in 12,000 BC, the second surge hit at around 9,500 BC, and the final surge hit around 5,600 BC.  Three times, they were forced to move westward and northward, onto drier shores of what is now present-day Northern Vietnam and Southern China.  From there, the population recovered and began spreading out all over the area. [6]

This happened as early as twenty-thousand years ago, when our ancestors found their homes becoming water-logged and had to move further inland.  However, according to new findings back in August of 2012, people were not just living in the area of Sundaland, they were also spread out into areas that were much further inland and further north. [3]

Here, I hit upon another gnarly situaiton:  How to prove human movement.  Since that was not within the scope of geology, I had to consult modern anthropology.

Stuck-homework

Anthropological Evidence for Human Presence

According to Dr. Laura Shackelford, anthropology professor at University of Illinois, in the summer of 2012, a skull found in Northern Laos that was dated circa 63,000 years old, indicates that there was also human presence there, which corroborated with the latest genetic studies that indicate that modern humans occupied that part of the world at least 60,000 years ago. “This is the first fossil evidence that supports the genetic data,” she said. [4]

Compelling evidence also shows that we went as far west as Sumeria, where folks started setting up a new civilization. [8]  That is how archaeologists go from seeing nothing—no sign of human civilization, to all of a sudden, a people who called themselves Sumerians springing up out of nowhere, with a completely developed culture and civilization.  Even though there was no evidence whatsoever of where they originated and how they came to acquire their knowledge, the middle-east region became known as the cradle of civilization because that was the farthest scientists had been able to pull back the veil of ancient past. [7]

But now, with better technology, better methods of research, we are starting to discover deeper and deeper levels of humanity’s existence.  With archaeogenetics and the ability to do genome sequencing of ancient biological evidence, all of a sudden, we had the tools and knowledge to reach back even farther—thousands and thousands of years farther.

anime girl 194

Archaeogenetical Evidence for Human Movement and Expansion

Genetics indicate a radical and completely fascinating story.  The real cradle of civilization seems to be pointing towards the sunken Sundaland continental shelf, with the oldest of that population, genetically-speaking, being the Vietnamese population. [5][7]

According to the sequencing of human mitochondrial DNA from 153 independent samples which was done in 1992 by a team of scientists working with the Genetics Society of America, “all  Asian  populations  were  found  to share two ancient AluIIDdeI  polymorphisms at nps  10394  and  10397  and to be  genetically  similar indicating that  they  share  a  common  ancestry.  The  greatest  mtDNA  diversity  and  the  highest frequency of  mtDNAs with  HfiaI/HincII  morph  1 were  observed  in  the  Vietnamese  suggesting  a Southern Mongoloid  origin of Asians.” [8]  This means that my Vietnamese ancestors spread out EVERYWHERE.

Using this initial finding as the leaping board, through a massive collaborative effort of the Human Genome Organisation in 2009, scientists from 40 institutes were able to gather 2,000 samples from 73 different populations covering almost the entire spectrum of linguistic and ethnic diversity and genotyped for approximately 50,000 single nucleotide polymorphic markers.

This is some of what they were able to assertain:  [9]

1.  East and Southeast Asians share a common origin.

2.  East Asians mainly originated from South East Asian populations with minor contributions from Central-South Asian groups.

3.  A common ancestor of the Negrito and non-Negrito populations of Asia entered into the continent. This supports the hypothesis of one wave of migration into Asia as opposed to two waves of migrations from Africa.

4.  The Taiwan aborigines are derived from Austronesian populations. This stands in contrast to the suggestion that this island served as the ancestral “homeland” for Austronesian speaking populations throughout the Indo-Pacific.

5.  Genetic ancestry is highly correlated with linguistic affiliations as well as geography.

This is powerful information.  It sent a shock wave rippling through the communities around the world when the information was initially released.  As more and more evidence began to surface, the idea of a Sundaland Cradle of Civilization became more and more widespread until it began to turn the tide and is now in the process of rewriting the history of ancient mankind.

By no means am I saying that this is all there is to know about our ancient past.  I will always be on the lookout for any new information that comes to light in regards to ancient people of Sundaland and elsewhere.  Indeed, much of what has just been found all around the Sundaland area between 1999 and early 2013 (barely 14 years of research) continues to support the evidence of what has been indicated by genetic sequencing.  However, this is plenty enough evidence for me to confidently move onto my next leg of the journey, that of rediscovering the history of my people.

1.  Petetherockman.com.  Peter Cattermole.

2.  Dr. Martin Richards. “Climate Change and Postglacial Human Dispersals in Southeast Asia”. Oxford Journals.http://www.physorg.com/news130761648.html. Retrieved 2010.

3.  Eden in the East: The Drowned Continent of Southeast Asia.  Oppenheimer, Stephen.  July 1999.

4.  An Anatomically Modern Human in Southeast Asia (Laos).  Dr. Laura Shackelford.  August 2012.

5.  Mapping Human Genetic Diversity in Asia.  Science Magazine.  December 2009.

6.  Underworld: The Mysterious Origins of Civilization.  Graham Hancock.  October 2003.

7.  Genetic ‘map’ of Asia’s Diversity.   BBC News. Dec. 2009.

8.  Southeast Asian Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Reveals Genetic Continuity of Ancient Mongoloid Migrations. The Genetics Society of America.  1992.

9.  HUGO (Human Genome Organisation).  Dr. Vikrant Kumar.  December 2009.